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The decryptions by means of machines that allowed the Americans to read Japanese diplomatic codes such as Purple and J-19 were known collectively as MAGIC product, much as the British called the output of the Enigma machine ULTRA. The Americans shared the former with the British in late 1940, and were deeply offended by the refusal of the British to reciprocate with an Enigma machine at that time. The process of decoding could still take a lot of time and effort as is shown by the fact that the Americans beat the Japanese Embassy in Washington to the decoding of the last set of instructions sent to Ambassador Kichisaburo Namuro (Namuro, Kichisaburo) on 6/7 December 1941.

See also: Bratton, Rufus S.; espionage; J-19; Namuro, Kichisaburo; Purple