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Central Intelligence Agency

The fragmentation of intelligence-gathering organizations that contributed to the failure of the American defense complex to anticipate the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor led to consolidation. Although the MAGIC product was valuable, and in spite of J-19, the low-grade code, being readable and JN-25, the Japanese Naval code, allegedly having been cracked, evaluation was slow, priorities poorly defined and the navy and army behaved as rivals rather than as colleagues in 1941. As a result the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was set up.

See also: Espionage; J-19; JN-25; MAGIC

You can find out more about the Central Intelligence Agency in the following Osprey books:

CAMPAIGN 62 Pearl Harbor 1941; CAMPAIGN 30 Midway 1942